Links for October 2014

  • Total moving face reconstruction“:

    We present an approach that takes a single video of a person’s face and reconstructs a high detail 3D shape for each video frame. We target videos taken under uncontrolled and uncalibrated imaging conditions, such as youtube videos of celebrities. In the heart of this work is a new dense 3D flow estimation method coupled with shape from shading. Unlike related works we do not assume availability of a blend shape model, nor require the person to participate in a training/capturing process. Instead we leverage the large amounts of photos that are available per individual in personal or internet photo collections. We show results for a variety of video sequences that include various lighting conditions, head poses, and facial expressions.

  • What’s changed since the days when theft was worse than murder? I would really love to see whether a “historical economist” (or whatever those are called) could estimate the statistical value of a human life as defined by people’s own revealed preferences. This is the sort of calculation where we infer how much each of us values our own lives based on the amount we are willing to pay to avoid small chances of death.

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Links for September 2014

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  • In discussions about the dangers of increasing the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by treating farm animals with antibotics, it’s a common (and understandable) misconception that antibiotics serve the same purpose with animals as for people: to prevent disease. In fact, antibiotics serve mainly as a way to increase animal growth. We know that this arises from the effect on bacteria (and not, say, by the effect of the antibiotic molecule on the animal’s cells), but it is not because antibiotics are reducing visible illness among animals:

    Studies conducted in germ free animals have shown that the actions of these AGP [antimicrobial growth promoters] substances are mediated through their antibacterial activity. There are four hypotheses to explain their effect (Butaye et al., 2003). These include: 1) antibiotics decrease the toxins produced by the bacteria; 2) nutrients may be protected against bacterial destruction; 3) increase in the absorption of nutrients due to a thinning of the intestinal wall; and 4) reduction in the incidence of sub clinical infections. However, no study has pinpointed the exact mechanism by which the AGP work in the animal intestine. [More.]

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  • You’ve probably noticed that your brain will try to reconcile contradictory visual info. Showing different images to each eye will causes someone to essentially see only one or the other at a time (although it will switch back and forth).

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Links for August 2014

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  • Jester (Adam Falkowski) on physics breakthroughs:

    This year’s discoveries follow the well-known 5-stage Kübler-Ross pattern: 1) announcement, 2) excitement, 3) debunking, 4) confusion, 5) depression. While BICEP is approaching the end of the cycle, the sterile neutrino dark matter signal reported earlier this year is now entering stage 3.

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  • The ultimate bounds on possible nuclides are more-or-less known from first principles.
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  • UPower Technologies is a nuclear power start-up backed by Y-Combinator.
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  • It is not often appreciated that “[s]mallpox eradication saved more than twice the number of people 20th century world peace would have achieved.” Malaria eradication would be much harder, but the current prospects are encouraging. Relatedly, the method for producing live but attenuated viruses is super neat:

    Attenuated vaccines can be made in several different ways. Some of the most common methods involve passing the disease-causing virus through a series of cell cultures or animal embryos (typically chick embryos). Using chick embryos as an example, the virus is grown in different embryos in a series. With each passage, the virus becomes better at replicating in chick cells, but loses its ability to replicate in human cells. A virus targeted for use in a vaccine may be grown through—“passaged” through—upwards of 200 different embryos or cell cultures.

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